# sun rich solar

"The inner planets are made mostly of matter produced in the inner part of that star," Manuel says, "and the outer planets of material that formed out of the outer layers of that star.". However, according to spacecraft observations the interplanetary field at Earth's location is around 5 nT, about a hundred times greater. [83] The spectrum of sunlight has approximately the spectrum of a black-body radiating at 5777 K, interspersed with atomic absorption lines from the tenuous layers above the photosphere. At this point in the dynamo cycle, buoyant upwelling within the convective zone forces emergence of toroidal magnetic field through the photosphere, giving rise to pairs of sunspots, roughly aligned east–west and having footprints with opposite magnetic polarities. ) [218][219] Derivatives of this goddess in Indo-European languages include the Old Norse Sól, Sanskrit Surya, Gaulish Sulis, Lithuanian Saulė, and Slavic Solntse. Fischer and her team determined that 20 percent of metal-rich stars have planets orbiting them. Yohkoh observed an entire solar cycle but went into standby mode when an annular eclipse in 2001 caused it to lose its lock on the Sun. [46] The atmosphere in particular filters out over 70% of solar ultraviolet, especially at the shorter wavelengths. The current to the battery oscillates between about 4A (full sun) to zero amps very 4 seconds. [123] As one fragment of the cloud collapsed it also began to rotate due to conservation of angular momentum and heat up with the increasing pressure. [83] Photons produced in this layer escape the Sun through the transparent solar atmosphere above it and become solar radiation, sunlight. [81] Presently, it is hypothesized (see Solar dynamo) that a magnetic dynamo within this layer generates the Sun's magnetic field. The heavy elements could most plausibly have been produced by endothermic nuclear reactions during a supernova, or by transmutation through neutron absorption within a massive second-generation star.[31]. [49][50] When the Sun is low in the sky, atmospheric scattering renders the Sun yellow, red, orange, or magenta. A solar wind sample return mission, Genesis, was designed to allow astronomers to directly measure the composition of solar material. Mission data allowed scientists to identify several different types of flares, and demonstrated that the corona away from regions of peak activity was much more dynamic and active than had previously been supposed. Virginia Business. Those that do appear are at high solar latitudes. Ω It will then expand more rapidly over about half a billion years until it is over two hundred times larger than today and a couple of thousand times more luminous. [69], The Sun's convection zone extends from 0.7 solar radii (500,000 km) to near the surface. [153], The Sun is moved by the gravitational pull of the planets. [187], In 1980, the Solar Maximum Mission was launched by NASA. The Egyptians portrayed the god Ra as being carried across the sky in a solar barque, accompanied by lesser gods, and to the Greeks, he was Helios, carried by a chariot drawn by fiery horses. Solar thermal power plants can use more wavelengths of the solar spectrum, but they can only operate in direct sunlight, limiting them to sun-rich areas. Last summer, astronomer Debra Fischer at the University of California, Berkeley, presented her findings of a study of more than 750 stars at the International Astronomical Union meeting in Sydney, Australia. [188], Launched in 1991, Japan's Yohkoh (Sunbeam) satellite observed solar flares at X-ray wavelengths. As a result, the outward-flowing solar wind stretches the interplanetary magnetic field outward, forcing it into a roughly radial structure. Ibn Yunus observed more than 10,000 entries for the Sun's position for many years using a large astrolabe.[171]. He reasoned that it was not the chariot of Helios, but instead a giant flaming ball of metal even larger than the land of the Peloponnesus and that the Moon reflected the light of the Sun. [156], The temperature of the photosphere is approximately 6,000 K, whereas the temperature of the corona reaches 1000000–2000000 K.[91] The high temperature of the corona shows that it is heated by something other than direct heat conduction from the photosphere. A 50 kg adult human has a volume of about 0.05 m, Earth's atmosphere near sea level has a particle density of about 2, Iben, I Jnr (1965) "Stellar Evolution. However, after hydrogen fusion in its core has stopped, the Sun will undergo dramatic changes, both internally and externally. It is calculated that the Sun will become sufficiently large to engulf the current orbits of Mercury and Venus, and render Earth uninhabitable – but not for about five billion years. 2 Counterclockwise is also the direction of revolution around the Sun for objects in the Solar System and is the direction of axial spin for most objects. [83] In the upper part of the chromosphere helium becomes partially ionized. RICH SOLAR - www.richsolar.com. [135][136] It also causes sunburn, and has other biological effects such as the production of vitamin D and sun tanning. [67] It has a density of up to 150 g/cm3[68][69] (about 150 times the density of water) and a temperature of close to 15.7 million kelvin (K). [80] The temperature drops from approximately 7 million to 2 million kelvins with increasing distance from the core. {\displaystyle \Omega _{0}=A-B} {\displaystyle 2\pi /\kappa } The Sun's dipole magnetic field of 50–400 μT (at the photosphere) reduces with the inverse-cube of the distance, leading to a predicted magnetic field of 0.1 nT at the distance of Earth. = This is the time it would take the Sun to return to a stable state, if the rate of energy generation in its core were suddenly changed. have to take the same amount of time to go around the galaxy as the sun and thus remain in the same general vicinity as the Sun. By the end of that phase—lasting approximately 500,000 years—the Sun will only have about half of its current mass. [117], A recent theory claims that there are magnetic instabilities in the core of the Sun that cause fluctuations with periods of either 41,000 or 100,000 years. Solar cells Multicrystalline 156 × 156mm (6 inches) Cell orientation 60 cells (6 × 10) Module dimensions 1650 × 992 × 35mm (64.95 × 39.05 × 1.37 inches) Weight 18.6kg (41.0 lb) Glass high transparency solar glass 3.2mm (0.13 inches) Frame Anodized aluminium alloy. The sun's surface is a violent and turbulent place, where a fiery tempest always blows. Recent solar flares erupting on the sun's surface have unleashed powerful geomagnetic storms -- gigantic clouds of highly charged particles that pose a threat to electric utilities, high-frequency radio communications, satellite navigation systems and television broadcasts. ≈ We don't know when or if this item will be back in stock. Originally it would have contained about 71.1% hydrogen, 27.4% helium, and 1.5% heavier elements. It was adopted as the Sabbath day by Christians who did not have a Jewish background. The Sun has an absolute magnitude of +4.83, estimated to be brighter than about 85% of the stars in the Milky Way, most of which are red dwarfs. [41] The Sun rotates faster at its equator than at its poles. AFP, UPI and IANS news wire stories are copyright Agence France-Presse, United Press International and Indo-Asia News Service. [52][73], The proton–proton chain occurs around 9.2×1037 times each second in the core, converting about 3.7×1038 protons into alpha particles (helium nuclei) every second (out of a total of ~8.9×1056 free protons in the Sun), or about 6.2×1011 kg/s. [65], Prior to 1983, it was thought that the whole Sun has the same composition as the solar atmosphere. ) The Sun is a G-type main-sequence star (G2V) based on its spectral class. Go solar, reduce your energy bills and discover why SunPower is a world standard in solar solutions for homes and businesses The content herein, unless otherwise known to be public domain, are Copyright 1995-2016 - Space Media Network. V [54] All heavier elements, called metals in astronomy, account for less than 2% of the mass, with oxygen (roughly 1% of the Sun's mass), carbon (0.3%), neon (0.2%), and iron (0.2%) being the most abundant. [144] Of the 50 nearest stellar systems within 17 light-years from Earth (the closest being the red dwarf Proxima Centauri at approximately 4.2 light-years), the Sun ranks fourth in mass.[145]. Viewed from Earth as it orbits the Sun, the apparent rotational period of the Sun at its equator is about 28 days. Scientists are reporting in the journal Science today that they have finally succeeded in getting a good three-dimensional view of it. 2 Dr. Oliver Manuel, a professor of nuclear chemistry, believes that iron, not hydrogen, is the sun's most abundant element. [162][163][164], In the early first millennium BC, Babylonian astronomers observed that the Sun's motion along the ecliptic is not uniform, though they did not know why; it is today known that this is due to the movement of Earth in an elliptic orbit around the Sun, with Earth moving faster when it is nearer to the Sun at perihelion and moving slower when it is farther away at aphelion. Much of the mass became concentrated in the center, whereas the rest flattened out into a disk that would become the planets and other Solar System bodies. Ultraviolet light is strongly attenuated by Earth's ozone layer, so that the amount of UV varies greatly with latitude and has been partially responsible for many biological adaptations, including variations in human skin color in different regions of the Earth.[212]. [192], All these satellites have observed the Sun from the plane of the ecliptic, and so have only observed its equatorial regions in detail. It is composed of four distinct parts: the chromosphere, the transition region, the corona and the heliosphere. Manuel believes Fischer's research helps to confirm his 40-year effort to change the way people think about the solar system's origins. One astronomical unit (about 150,000,000 km; 93,000,000 mi) is defined as the mean distance of the Sun's center to Earth's center, though the distance varies as Earth moves from perihelion in January to aphelion in July. In a paper accepted for publication in the Journal of Fusion Energy, Manuel asserts that the "standard solar model" -- which assumes that the sun's core is made of hydrogen -- has led to misunderstandings of how such solar flares occur, as well as inaccurate views on the nature of global climate change. A new study look into the quest for sustainable fuel, and how solar energy can be transformed into exactly this. It is thought that almost all stars form by this process. Once the core hydrogen is exhausted in 5.4 billion years, the Sun will expand into a subgiant phase and slowly double in size over about half a billion years. Its mass is about 330,000 times that of Earth, and accounts for about 99.86% of the total mass of the Solar System. These meteorites are thought to retain the composition of the protostellar Sun and are thus not affected by settling of heavy elements. {\displaystyle \Omega } [69] This temperature gradient is less than the value of the adiabatic lapse rate and hence cannot drive convection, which explains why the transfer of energy through this zone is by radiation instead of thermal convection. Giant planets like Jupiter grew from material in the outer part of the supernova, while Earth and the inner planets formed out of material form the supernova's interior. [67] Through most of the Sun's life, energy has been produced by nuclear fusion in the core region through a series of nuclear reactions called the p–p (proton–proton) chain; this process converts hydrogen into helium. The Sun formed about 4.6 billion years ago from the collapse of part of a giant molecular cloud that consisted mostly of hydrogen and helium and that probably gave birth to many other stars. These interactive maps (available soon) give estimates of photovoltaic potential (in kWh/kWp) and of the mean daily global insolation (in MJ/m2 and in kWh/m2) for any location in Canada on a 60 arc seconds ~2 km grid.. [120] This age is estimated using computer models of stellar evolution and through nucleocosmochronology. Sun Rich fresh-cut fruit products are purchased by thousands of foodservice operators across North America. [14] The result is consistent with the radiometric date of the oldest Solar System material, at 4.567 billion years ago. [80] The temperature of the chromosphere increases gradually with altitude, ranging up to around 20,000 K near the top. X Continued turbulence on the sun will remain a concern for the coming days, according to space forecasters. [178] However, it would be Albert Einstein who would provide the essential clue to the source of the Sun's energy output with his mass–energy equivalence relation E = mc2. In 1868, Norman Lockyer hypothesized that these absorption lines were caused by a new element that he dubbed helium, after the Greek Sun god Helios. This discrepancy was resolved in 2001 through the discovery of the effects of neutrino oscillation: the Sun emits the number of neutrinos predicted by the theory, but neutrino detectors were missing ​2⁄3 of them because the neutrinos had changed flavor by the time they were detected. In the early years of the modern scientific era, the source of the Sun's energy was a significant puzzle. Simple filters made of darkened glass allow the full intensity of sunlight to pass through if they break, endangering the observer's eyesight. [92] Skylab made the first time-resolved observations of the solar transition region and of ultraviolet emissions from the solar corona. The brightness of the Sun can cause pain from looking at it with the naked eye; however, doing so for brief periods is not hazardous for normal non-dilated eyes. Sun Source is pleased to now be stocking K-Flex Solar Insul-Tube pipe insulation! When using an attenuating filter to view the Sun, the viewer is cautioned to use a filter specifically designed for that use. [45] Sunlight at the top of Earth's atmosphere is composed (by total energy) of about 50% infrared light, 40% visible light, and 10% ultraviolet light. Viewing the Sun through light-concentrating optics such as binoculars may result in permanent damage to the retina without an appropriate filter that blocks UV and substantially dims the sunlight. One can think of the barycentre of the Solar System as being stationary (or as moving in a steady motion around the galaxy). The solar wind travels outward continuously through the heliosphere,[95][96] forming the solar magnetic field into a spiral shape,[93] until it impacts the heliopause more than 50 AU from the Sun. The sunlight that is destined for the eyepiece is reflected from an unsilvered surface of a piece of glass. SunPower Maxeon solar panels are the highest efficiency panel you can buy with unmatched reliability* Jordan, et. The spate of solar storms to hit Earth in recent days may be caused by the sun's iron-rich interior, says a UMR researcher who theorizes that the sun's core is made of iron rather than hydrogen. At this rate, the Sun has so far converted around 100 times the mass of Earth into energy, about 0.03% of the total mass of the Sun. Three years later, Manuel and Sabu found that all of the primordial helium in meteorites is trapped in the same sites that trapped strange xenon. He thinks a supernova rocked our area of the Milky Way galaxy some five billion years ago, giving birth to all the heavenly bodies that populate the solar system. At a typical solar minimum, few sunspots are visible, and occasionally none can be seen at all. With solar-cycle modulation of sunspot number comes a corresponding modulation of space weather conditions, including those surrounding Earth where technological systems can be affected. [220] In later times, Helios was syncretized with Apollo. The Helios 1 and 2 probes were U.S.–German collaborations that studied the solar wind from an orbit carrying the spacecraft inside Mercury's orbit at perihelion. Solar System → Local Interstellar Cloud → Local Bubble → Gould Belt → Orion Arm → Milky Way → Milky Way subgroup → Local Group → Local Sheet → Virgo Supercluster → Laniakea Supercluster → Observable universe → UniverseEach arrow (→) may be read as "within" or "part of". π The corona is the extended atmosphere of the Sun, which has a volume much larger than the volume enclosed by the Sun's photosphere. [78][79], From the core out to about 0.7 solar radii, thermal radiation is the primary means of energy transfer. So if the Sun was 8 ppb (parts per billion) uranium, then 0.27% of an earth mass of uranium in the Sun. κ Solar Shade USA is a design/build manufacturer of standard and custom tensioned membrane shade structures for residential and commercial applications. This reaction is called Bose-Einstein condensation. At the photosphere, the temperature has dropped to 5,700 K and the density to only 0.2 g/m3 (about 1/6,000 the density of air at sea level). Out to 81.5 ly, there may be up to 7,500 stars, of which around 2,600 are known. [106], An 11-year sunspot cycle is half of a 22-year Babcock–Leighton dynamo cycle, which corresponds to an oscillatory exchange of energy between toroidal and poloidal solar magnetic fields. κ Theoretical models of the Sun's interior indicate a maximum power density, or energy production, of approximately 276.5 watts per cubic metre at the center of the core,[76] which is about the same power density as in body of a reptile or inside a compost pile. [191] Situated at the Lagrangian point between Earth and the Sun (at which the gravitational pull from both is equal), SOHO has provided a constant view of the Sun at many wavelengths since its launch. The photosphere has a particle density of ~1023 m−3 (about 0.37% of the particle number per volume of Earth's atmosphere at sea level). The thermal pulses become larger each time, with the later pulses pushing the luminosity to as much as 5,000 times the current level and the radius to over 1 AU. Strange xenon came from the helium-rich outer layers of the supernova, while normal xenon came from its interior. You could: make each piece of toilet paper a particular distance, say, 20 million km; divide the total distance between the Sun and Neptune by the number of pieces in your toilet roll {\displaystyle X+V/(2B)} Light of shorter wavelengths (violet, blue, green) is bent more than that of longer wavelengths (yellow, orange, red) but the violet and blue light is scattered more, leaving light that is perceived as green. [90], Above the chromosphere, in a thin (about 200 km) transition region, the temperature rises rapidly from around 20000 K in the upper chromosphere to coronal temperatures closer to 1000000 K.[91] The temperature increase is facilitated by the full ionization of helium in the transition region, which significantly reduces radiative cooling of the plasma. ) The more solar energy they use to power their nations, the more petroleum they can export to oil-thirsty countries. [83] It is called the chromosphere from the Greek root chroma, meaning color, because the chromosphere is visible as a colored flash at the beginning and end of total solar eclipses. The number of substellar objects in that volume are expected to be comparable to the number of stars. Many ancient monuments were constructed with solar phenomena in mind; for example, stone megaliths accurately mark the summer or winter solstice (some of the most prominent megaliths are located in Nabta Playa, Egypt; Mnajdra, Malta and at Stonehenge, England); Newgrange, a prehistoric human-built mount in Ireland, was designed to detect the winter solstice; the pyramid of El Castillo at Chichén Itzá in Mexico is designed to cast shadows in the shape of serpents climbing the pyramid at the vernal and autumnal equinoxes. Sunrun is the leading home solar panel and battery storage company. The Sun is a G2V star, with G2 indicating its surface temperature of approximately 5,778 K (5,505 °C, 9,941 °F), and V that it, like most stars, is a main-sequence star. Heat is transferred outward from the Sun's core by radiation rather than by convection (see Radiative zone below), so the fusion products are not lifted outward by heat; they remain in the core[57] and gradually an inner core of helium has begun to form that cannot be fused because presently the Sun's core is not hot or dense enough to fuse helium. Most of this matter gathered in the center, whereas the rest flattened into an orbiting disk that became the Solar System. = 2 This process speeds up as the core gradually becomes denser. = [91] The first is wave heating, in which sound, gravitational or magnetohydrodynamic waves are produced by turbulence in the convection zone. Solar flares and coronal-mass ejections tend to occur at sunspot groups. The Solar System also has at least five dwarf planets, an asteroid belt, numerous comets, and a large number of icy bodies which lie beyond the orbit of Neptune. Solar deities play a major role in many world religions and mythologies. The Sun is a G-type main-sequence star that comprises about 99.86% of the mass of the Solar System. "The prevailing opinion in the solar physics community is that solar dynamos generate the sun's magnetic fields by plasma flows in the outer part of the sun. [56], Since the Sun formed, the main fusion process has involved fusing hydrogen into helium. In the New Empire period, the Sun became identified with the dung beetle, whose spherical ball of dung was identified with the Sun. [160], However, examination of Archaean sediments appears inconsistent with the hypothesis of high greenhouse concentrations. Manuel first began to develop the iron-rich sun theory in 1972. 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